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Vanitas Still Life
Image: Edwaert Collier - Vanitas Still Life (1673)
I started my pirate reenacting career searching for a book, wondering if there could be one that would tell all about how a surgeon would function during the golden age of piracy. Unfortunately, I didn't find a particular book, but it led me on a merry chase which allowed me to find other books that could help inform my portrayal. I delved into books from the period and was pleased to find hundreds of them. (If that sounds daunting, I invite you to check out the Useful Page Links for Pirate Surgeons where I pare this list down to my favorites.)

I love to sift, sort and share information like this, so, at the behest of some researcher friends, I decided to create a Bibliography for the articles on this web page. When I started, I had to go to universities and plunder their databases. Now many of these books are freely available via Google Books, Project Gutenburg and Archive.org (among others.) I go into greater detail on how to obtain resources on my Finding and Obtaining 17th/18th Century Surgical Resources Page if that interests you.

The Pirate Surgeon's Journal Bibliography

d'Ablaincourt JJ., Bruhier, The Uncertainty of the Signs of Death, Printed for M. Cooper, at the Globe in Pater-noster-Row, London, 1746

Alcock, Thomas, "An Essay on the Education and Duties of the general Practitioner in Medicine and Surgery.", Transactions of the Associated Apothecaries and Surgeon-Apothecaries of England and Wales, Vol. I., 1823

Admiralty Slop Contract, PRO Admirarly, Secretary, Orders and Instructions, July 12, 1706

Allen, Charles, The Operator for the Teeth, Dublyn, London, England, 1687

Allen, Phyllis, "Medical Education in 17th Century England", Journal of the history of medicine and allied sciences, V1, 1946, p. 115-143

Allison, R. S., "Chirurgeon: Look to the Wounded," J Royal Medical Serv 1990, p 15-23

Aries, Philippe, The Hour of Our Death, Translated from the original French by Helen Weaver, Oxford University Press, New York, 1981

Ashley, Raymond, "Scurvy – Scourge of Long Voyages at Sea," No Quarter Given, September, 1999, pages 4-5

Ashton, Jr., Philip, "He Repeated the Snapping of His Pistol at My Head," Captured by Pirates, edited by John Richard Stephens, Cambria, CA, 1996, p. 260-291- Note: this is excerpted from A History of the Strange Adventures and Signal Deliverances of Mr. Philip Ashton Jun. of Marblehead as told by Ashton, 1725

Chirurgus Marinus

Associated Apothecaries of England, Transactions of the Associated Apothecaries of England and Wales, Vol. 1, London, 1823

Atkins, John, A Voyage to Guinea, Brazil and the West Indies, Frank Cass & Co. Ltd., London, 1970 Note: reprinted from the 1735 edition

Atkins, John, The Navy Surgeon, J. Hodges, London, 1742

Aubrey, Thomas, The Sea-Surgeon or the Guinea Man's Vadé Mecum., John Clarke at the Bibole under the Royal-Exchange, London, 1729

Ayres, Philip, The voyages and adventures of Capt. Barth. Sharp and others in the South Sea, Published by P.A. Esq;, London, 1684

Barbette, Paul, M.D., Thesaurus Chirurgiæ, The Fourth Edition, Translated out of Low Dutch into English, London, Printed for Henry Rhodes, 1687

Barlow, Edward, Barlow's Journal of his Life at Sea in King's Ships, East and West Indiamen & Other Merchantman From 1659 to 1703, Volume I, 1659-1677,  Transcribed by Basil Lubbock, London, 1934.

Bennion, Elizabeth, Antique Medical Instruments,  Sotheby Parke Bernet, University of California Press, 1979

Bigges, Walter, A Summarie and True Discourse of Sir Francis Drakes West-Indian Voyage, London, 1652

Binski, Paul, Medieval Death: Ritual and Representation, Cornell University Press, New York, 1996

Blane, Sir Gilbert, Bart., Elements of Medical Logick, London, 1821

Bonham, Thomas, The Chururgians Closet, Printed by Georges Miller for Edward Brewster, London, England, 1630

Old books
Photo: Tom Woodard

Booker, John, Maritime Quarantine: The British Experience, c. 1650-1900, Ashgate, Publishing Company, Burlington, VT, 2007

Boteler [Butler], Nathaniel, Boteler's Dialogues, Edited by W. G. Perrin, Navy Records Society, 1929

Bown, Stephen R., Scurvy: How a Surgeon, a Mariner, and a Gentleman Solved the Greatest Medieval Mystery of the Age of Sail, Thomas Dunne Books, New York, 2003

Boyle, Robert, Boyle's Remedies - Medicinal Experiments (3rd ed.), Printed for Sameul Smith and B. Walford, London, 1696

Bradwell, Stephen, Helps For Suddain Accidents Endangering Life., Thomas Purfoot, Popes-head Alley, 1633

Brain, Peter, Galen on Bloodletting, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1986

Brown, Kevin, Poxed and Scurvied: The Story of Sickness and Health at Sea, Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, Maryland, 2011

Brugis, Thomas, Vade Mecum: Or, a Companion for a Chirurgion. Fitted For Sea, or Land; or War., London, Printed for B.T. and T.S., 1689

Burchett, Josaiah, A Complete History Of the Most Remarkable Transactions at Sea, London, Printed by W.B for J. Walthoe in the Temply Clysters, 1720

Celsus, Cornelius, A Cornelius Celsus Of Medicine in Eight Books, Translated by James Greive, London, 1756

Clowes, William, A Profitable and necessarie Book of Observations, for all those that are burned with the flam of Gunpowder, Imprinted at London by Edm. Bollifant for Thomas Dawson, 1596

Clowes, William, Selected Writings of William Clowes, Harvey & Blithe Ltd., London, 1948

Book - Nature and Causes of Fluxes
Image: Liam Quin

Chapman, Allan, Health on the Ocean Waves: The Sea Doctor Afloat and in Port, Gresham College, March 13, 2006

Cockayne, Emily, Hubbub: Filth, Noise, and Stench in England, 1600-1770,

Cockburn, William, A Continuation Of the Account of The Nature, Causes, Symptoms and Cure of the Distempers That are Incident to Seafaring People, London, Printed for Hugh Newman, at the Grashopper in the Poultry, 1697

Cockburn, William, An Account of The Nature, Causes, Symptoms and Cure of the Distempers That are Incident to Seafaring People, London, Printed for Hugh Newman, at the Grashopper in the Poultry, 1696

Cockburn, William, The Nature and Cure of Fluxes (3rd ed.), London, Printed for John Clarke at the Bible, under the Royal Exchange, Cornhill, 1724

Cogan, Thomas, Memoirs of the Society of Amsterdam in Favour of Drowned Persons, Printed for G. Robinson, in Pater-noster Row, 1773

Colver, Sir Frank, Old Instruments Used For Extracting Teeth, Milford House, Boston, 1973

Cook, G.C., "Influence of diarrhoeal disease on military and naval campaigns," JR Soc Med 2001: 94, 95-97

Cook, Harold J., "Practical Medicine and the British Armed Forces After the 'Glorious Revolution," Medical History, 1990, 34, p. 1-26

Cooke, Edward, A Voyage to the South Sea and Round the World in the Years 1708 to 1711, Volume 1, N. Isreal/ Amsterdam & Da Capo Press, New York, 1969

Cooley, Arnold James, Cooley's Cyclopedia of Practical Receipts and Collateral Information, 5th ed., Revised and Partly Rewritten by Richard V. Tuson, J.E.A. Churchill, New Burlington Street, London, 1872

Cordingly, David, Under the Black Flag, Harcourt Brace, San Diego, 1997

Corner, David, "The Tyranny of Fashion: The Case of the Felt-Hatting Trade in the Late Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries", Textile History, Vol. 22, p. 153-78

Covel, John, "Extracts from the Diaries of Dr. John Covel, 1670-1679", Early Voyages and Travels in the Levant, J. Theodore Bent, Ed., Hakluyt Society, London, 1893

Crowley, William, Crowley's Voyage Round the Globe, from William Hacke's A collection of original voyages (1699), Scholar's Facimiles and Reprints, Delmar, New York, 1993

Coxere, Edward, Adventures by Sea of Edward Coxere, Oxford University Press, New York & London, 1946

Crooke, Helkiah, An Explanation of The Fashion and Use of Three and Fifty Instruments of Chirurgery, London, Printed for Michael Sparke, 1634

Nicolas Culpeper
Nicholas Culpeper

Cruikshank, Ernest Alexander, The Life of Sir Henry Morgan, Macmillan Company of Canada, Toronto, 1935

Culpeper, Nicolas, Pharmacœpia Londinesis, or the London Dispensatory, Printed by John Allen, for Nicholas Booone, the Sign of the Bible in Cornhill, Boston, 1720

Dampier, William, Memoirs of a Buccaneer, Dampier's New Voyage Round the World -1697-,  Dover Publications, Inc., Mineola, NY, 1968

Danforth, George Washington, An Elementary Outline Of Mechanical Processes, United States Naval Institute, Annapolis, Maryland, 1920

Davis, Audrey and Appel, Tony, Bloodletting Instruments in the Museum of History and Technology, Smithsonian Institute Press, City of Washington, 1979

Defoe, Daniel, A Tour Through the Whole Island of Great Britain, Dent, London, 1962

Dickinson, Jonathan, Johathan Dickison's Journal or God's Protecting Providence,  Edited by Evangeline Walker Andres and Charles McLean Andrews, Florida Classics Library, Port Slarno, FL, 1945

Dietz, Johann, Master Johann Dietz, Surgeon in the Army of the Great Elector and Barber to the Royal Court, Translated by Bernard Miall, London, England, 1923

Pierre Dionis
Surgical Instructor Pierre Dionis

Dionis, Pierre, A course of chirurgical operations: demonstrated in the royal garden at Paris. 2nd ed., translated from the original French, printed for J. Tonso, London, 1733

Dobson, Jessie, Archivist to the Company & Walker, Robert Milnes, Past Master, Barbers and Barber-Surgeons of London, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, 1979

Dover, Thomas, The Ancient Physician's Legacy to His Country, London, Printed for the Relict of the late R. Bradly, F.R., 1733

Dow, George Francis and Edmonds, John Henry, The Pirates of the New England Coast 1630-1730, Dover Publications, New York, 1996

Druett, Joan, Rough Medicine: Surgeons at Sea in the Age of Sail, Routledge, New York, 2000

Ducoin, Jacques, Compte rendu de recherches dans les archives francaises sure le naivre natais La Concorde capture par des pirates en 1717, North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources, Division of Archives and History, Raleigh, NC

The Lawes or Standing Orders of the East India Company, 1621

Elosesser, Leo, "Pirate and Buccaneer Doctors", Annals of Medical History, Vol. VIII, Issue 1, 1926, p. 31-60

Exquemelin, Alexander O., The Buccaneers of America, Translated by Alexis Brown, Mineola, NY, 1969

Exquemelin, Alexander O., The History of the Buccaneers of America, Boston, Sanborn, Carter and Bazin,, NY, 1856

Fabry, William (Guilielmus Fabritius Hildanus), Cista Militaris, Or, A Military Chest, Furnished Either for Sea or Land, with Convenient Medicines, and necessary Instruments, Englished for publick Benefit, London, Printed by W. Godvid, 1676

Fabry, William (Guilielm. Fabricius Hildanus), His Experiments in Chyrurgeries: Concerning Combustions or Burnings, Translated out of Latin by John Steer, 1643

Medicine Under Sail

Fox, E.T., editor, Pirates in Their Own Words, Fox Historical, 2014

Friedenberg, Zachary B., Medicine Under Sail, Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, Maryland, 2002

Funnell, William, A Voyage Round the World, Da Capo Press, New York, N. Isreal/Keizersgracht 539/Amsterdam C., 1969

de Garengeot, René Jacques Croissant, A Treatise of Chirurgical Operations, Translated by Mr. St. Andre, London, Printed for Tho. Woodward at the Half-Moon against St. Dunstan's Church in Fleetstreet, 1723

de Garengeot, René Jacques Croissant, Traité des opérations de chirurgie, Paris, 1731

Ginsburg, Madeline, The Hat Trends and Traditions, Studio, London, 1990

Glasse, Hannah, The Art of Cookery, Made Plain and Easy, London, 1770

Glasse, Hannah, The Art of Cookery, Made Plain and Easy, London, 1774

Goddard, Jonathan Charles, "The navy surgeon's chest: surgical instruments of the Royal Navy during the Napoleonic War," Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, April 2004, pages 191-7

Goddard, Jonathan Charles, "An insight into the life of Royal Naval surgeons during the Napoleonic War, Part I," Journal of the Royal Naval Medical Service, Winter 1991, pages 205-222

Goddard, Jonathan Charles, "An insight into the life of Royal Naval surgeons during the Napoleonic War, Part II," Journal of the Royal Naval Medical Service, Spring 1992, pages 27-36

Golden, Frank and Tipton, Michael, Essentials of Sea Survival, Human Kinetics, Champaign, IL, 2002

Gosse, Philip, The Pirate's Who's Who, Burt Franklin, New York, 1924

Book and Glasses
Artist: Jan van Eyck
Book Detail From Madonna des Kanonikus Georg van der Paele (1436)

Graham, Eric J., Seawolves: Pirates & the Scots, Birlinn Limited, Edinburgh, 2005

Great Britain Privy Council, Regulations and Instructions Relating to His Majesty's Service at Sea, London, 1731

Great Britain Privy Council, Regulations and Instructions Relating to His Majesty's Service at Sea, 9th ed., London, 1758

Guirini, Vincenzo, A History of Dentistry From the Most Ancient Times Until the End of the Eighteenth Century, Lea & Febiger, Philidelphia and New York, 1909

Hakluyt, Richard, Voyages of Elizabethan Seamen, edited by Edward John Payne, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1907

Hamilton, Alexander, British sea-captain Alexander Hamilton's A new account of the East Indies, 17th-18th century, edited by Justin Corfield, Ian Morson, Edwin Mellen Press, Lewiston, N.Y., 2002

Handley, James, Colloquia Chirurgica: or The Art of Surgery, C. Hitch at the Red-Lion, London, 1743

Harland, Kathleen., Dr., "Naval Medical Care 1620-1770 Saving the Seamen: Naval medical care in the Pre-Nelson era, 1620-1770," Journal of the Royal Medical Service 2005, p. 64-82

Harrison, Micheal, The History of the Hat, Herbert Jenkins, London, 1960

Harrison, Tony, "Nelson and his Navy – Surgery in the Royal Navy," The Historical Maritime Society

Hazelwood, Glen, "John Woodall: From Barber-Surgeon to Surgeon-General," Proceedings of the 12th Annual History of Medicine Days, March 2003, pages 117-25

Heister, Lorenz, A General System of Surgery in Three Parts (4th ed.), London, Printed for W. Innys in Paternoster-Row, 1750

Henry, David , An Historical Account of All the Voyages Round the World, performed by English Navigators, London F. Newbury, 1774

Hippocrates and Celsus, The Aphorisms and Hippocrates and Sentences of Celsus, Translated by C.J. Sprengell, London, Printed for R. Bonwick, W. Freeman, Tim. Godwin, John Waltho, John Nicholson, Samuel Manship, Richard, Parker, Benj. Took and Ralph Smith, 1708


Hippocrates, Hippocratic Writings, Translated and Edited by Francis Adams, Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc., Chicago, 1952

Hippocrates and Galen, The Writings of Hippocrates and Galen, Epitomsed From the Original Latin Translations by John Redman Coxe, Lindsay and Blakiston, Philadelphia, 1846

Holland, Bart K., "Treatments for bubonic plague: reports from seventeenth century British epidemics", J Royal Medical Service 2000:93, p. 322-324

Holme, Randle, The Academy of Armory, Chester, 1688

Huston, K. Garth, Resuscitation - An Historical Perspective, Wood Library Museum, Park Ridge, Illinois, 1976

Hutchinson, William, A Treatise Founded Upon Philosophical and Rational Principles, Towards Establishing Fixed Rules, For the Best Form and Proportional Dimensionsin Length, Breadth and Depth of Merchant's Ships in General, and also the Management of them to the greatest advantage, by Practical Seamanship, Liverpool, 1791

Ingram, Bruce S., Three Sea Journals of  Stuart Times, Constable & Co. Ltd., London, 1936

James, Robert, Pharmacœia Universalis: Or, A New Universal English Dispensatory, London, 1747

Jameson, John Franklin, editor, Privateering and Piracy in the Colonial Period Illustrative Documents, New York, The Macmillan Company, 1923

"John Moyle. One of Her Majesties Ancient Sea-Chirurgeons.", British Journal of Surgery, Vol. 3, Issue 12, 1915, p. 585-591

Johnson, Alexander, An Account of Some Societies at Amsterdam For the Recovery of Drowned Persons, London, 1773

Johnson, Captain Charles, A General History of the Pyrates (3rd Edition),  London, England, 1724

Johnson, Captain Charles, The History of the Pyrates, Hartford, Published by Henry Benton, 1829

Johnson, James Rawlins, A Treatise on the Medicinal Leech, London, 1816

Jones, E. Alfred "Silver Shaving Dishes", Museum of Fine Arts Bulletin, Vol. 14, No. 81, Feb 16, 1916, p. 7

Keevil, John J., Medicine and the Navy 1200-1900: Volume II – 1640-1714, Edinburgh and London, 1958

Keister, Douglas , Stories in Stone, Gibbs Smith, Layton, Utah, 2011

Keynes, Geoffrey, "Introduction," The Apologie and Treatise of Ambroise Paré, University of Chicago press in 1952

Kingsbury, Benjamin, A Treatise on Razors, 6th ed., London, 1810

Kirkup, John, The Evolution of Surgical Instruments; An Illustrated History from Ancient Time to the Twentieth Century, historyofscience.com, Novato, CA, 2006

Konstam, Angus, The Pirate Ship 1660-1730, Osprey, Oxford, 2003

L., J., The Sea-Man's Vade Mecum, London: Printed and Sold by James Woodward behind the Royal-Exchange, 1707 [Gathered from http://www.bruzelius.info/Nautica/Personnel/Vademecum%281707%29_p137b.html, 4/19/2009]

Pere Labat Frontispiece
Frontispiece from Jean-Baptiste Labat's

Labat, Pére Jean-Baptiste, The Memoirs of Pére Labat 1693-1705, translated and edited by John Eaden, Frank Cass & Co. Ltd, 1970

Lampe, Christine, Surgeons in the Sweet Trade, No Quarter Given, p. 8-9

Lane-Poole, Stanley, The Story of the Barbary Corsairs, G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York & London, 1890

Latham, Robert and Matthews, William, The Diary of Samuel Pepys Vol. 10 Companion, University of California Press, 2001

Le Clerc, Charles Gabriel, A Description of Bandages and Dressings, According to the most Commodious Ways now used in France, London, Printed for W. Freeman, J. Walthoe, T. Newborough, J. Nicholson and R. Parker, 1701

Leslie, Edward E., Desperate Journeys, Abandoned Souls,  Houghton Miflin Company, Boston & New York, 1988

Leech, Samuel, Thirty Years From Home, Tappan, Whittemore & Mason, Boston, 1843

List of Regulations and Instructions Relating to His Majesty's Service at Sea, Established by his Majesty in Council, 9th Edition, 1757

Little, Benerson, The Sea Rover's Practice: Pirate Tactics and Techniques, 1630-1730, Potomac Books, Washington, D.C., 2005

Longfield-Jones, G.M., "Buccaneering Doctors", Medical History, 36:2 (1992:Apr.) p. 187-206

Antique Books
Image: Liam Quin

Lummus, Henry T., "Old Sheffield Razors", Antiques, December 1922, p. 261-7

Lyons, Albert S. and Petrucelli, R. Joseph II, Medicine: An Illustrated History, Harry N. Abrams, Inc. Publishers, New York,

MacKenzie, David, "The History of Sutures," Medical History, 1973 April; 17(2): 158–168.  

Manwearing, G. E. , (editor), The Diary of Henry Teonge, Chaplain on Board H.M.'s Ships Assistance, Bristol, and Royal Oak, 1675-1679, Harper & Brothers, New York and London, 1927

McCreadie, Rory W., The Barber Surgeon's Mate of the 16th and 17th Century, Gosling Press, Upton, NR Pontefract, 2002

MacKlecan, Capt. James, A General and True History of the Lives and Actions Of the most Famous Highwaymen, Street-Robbers, Pirates &c., Vol II., R. Walker and W. Jackson, Oxford, 1748

Masefield, John, Sea Life in Nelson's Time, Methuen & Company, London, 1905

Chirurgus Marinus

Meacham, Carolyn, "The Cutting Edge - Antique Scissors", Elegant Arts Antiques Points of Interest - A Newsletter for Collectors, July 2006, p. 2

Milligan, George, Selections from Greek Papyri, Cambridge University Press, Massachusetts, 1910

Minderer, Raymund, A Body of Military Medicines Experiemented, 'Englished out of High-Dutch', Printed by William Godbid, London, 1674

Moyle, John, Abstractum Chirurgius Marinus: Or, An Abstract of Sea Chirurgery, Tracy at Three Bibles on London-Bridge, London, 1696

Moyle, John, Chirurgæ Marinus: Or, the Sea-Chirurgeon, Eben, Tracy at Three Bibles, London, 1686

Moyle, John, Chirurgius Marinus: Or, the Sea-Chirurgeon (4th ed.) Eben, Tracy at Three Bibles, London, 1702

Moyle, John, Chyrurgic Memoirs: Of many Extraordinary Cures, London, 1703

Nagy, Doreen G., Popular Medicine in Seventeenth Century England, Bowling Green State University Popular Press, Bowling Green, OH, 1988

Navarrete, Domingo, The Travels and Controversies of Friar Domingo Nabarrete 1618-1686, Edited by J.S. Cummins, Cambridge, Published for the Hakluyt Society at Univeristy Press, 1962

Nehama, Sarah, In Death Lamented: The tradition of Anglo-American Mourning Jewelry, Massachusettes Historical Society, 2012

News from the Dead or A True and Exact Narration of the miraculous devlierance of Anne Green, Printed by Leon and Lichfield, Oxford, 1651

Ormerod, Henry A., Piracy in the Ancient World, John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Md, 1924

Ambroise Pare
Ambroise Paré

Paré, Ambroise, The Apologie and Treatise of Anbroise Paré, University of Chicago press in 1952.

Paré, Ambroise, The Works of the Famous Chirurgion Ambroise Parey, Translated Out of the Original French by Tho. Johnson, Printed by Richard Cotes, and Willi. Dugard, London, 1649

Pechey, John, A Collection of Chronical Diseases, Printed by J.R. London, 1692

Pechey, John, The Complete Herbal of Physical Plants, London, Printed for J. and J. Bonwicke, at the Red Lion in St. Paul's Church-Yard, 1707

Pemberton, Henry, The Dispensatory Of the Royal College of Physicians, London, Dublin, Ireland, 1747

Pepys, Samuel, Samuel Pepys's Naval Minutes, Edited by J.R. Tanner, Naval Records Society, 1926

Perret, Jean-Jacques, La Pogonotomie, ou L'Art D'Apprendre ase Raser Soi Meme, Translated From the Original French by the Web Page Author, Yverdon, 1770

Peterkin, Allan, One Thousand Beards, Arsenal Pulp Press, Vancouver, 2001

Pomet, Pierre, A Compleat History of Druggs, 3rd. ed., London, Printed for J. and J. Bonwicke, R. Wilkin, S. Birt, T. Ward and E. Wicksteed, 1737

Porter, Roy, "The Patient in England, c. 1660-c. 1800," Medicine in Society, edited by Andrew Wear, Cambridge University Press, 1992, p. 91-118

Poynter, F.N.L., "Introduction," Selected Writing of William Clowes, Harvey & Blithe Ltd., London, 1948

Pruitt, Jr., Basil A., "Combat Casualty Care and Surgical Progress," Annals of Surgery, Vol. 243, Number 6, June 2006, p. 715-729

Mathias Purmann
Matthias Gottfried Purmann

Purmann, Matthias Gottfried, Chirugia Curiousa: or, the newest and most curious observations and operations in the whole art of chirurgery, London, 1706

Quincy, John, Pharmacœpia Officinalis & Extermporanea, Or, a Compleat English Dispensatory, 2nd. ed., Printed by A. Bell at the Cross-Keys and Bible in Cornhill, W. Taylor at the Ship in Paternoster-Row, and J. Osborn at the Oxford-Arms in Lombard Street, London, 1719

Quincy, John, Lexicon Physico-Medicum: Or, A New Medicinal Dictionary, 4th ed., London, 1730

Rennie, James, A New Supplement to the Pharmacœpias Of London, Edinburgh, Dublin and Paris, Forming a Complete Dispensatory and Conspectus, 3rd. ed., London, 1833

de Renou, Jacques, A Medicinal Dispensatory Containing The Whole Body of Physick, Translated by Rich Tominson, London, 1657

Repton, John Adey, "Observations on the various Fashions of Hats", Archaeologia: or, Miscellaneous Tracts Relating to Antiquity, Vol. 24, p. 168-89

Ringrose, Basil, The Voyages and Adventures of Capt. Barth. Sharp And Others in the South Sea, P.A., Esq., London, 1684

Roberts, George, The Four Years Voyages of Capt. George Roberts, A. Bettesworth, at the Red Lyon, in Pater-Noster-Row and J. Osborn, at the Ship, at St. Saviour's Dock-Head, near Horsely-Down, 1726

Woodes Rogers
Artist: William Hogarth - Woodes Rogers (1729)

Rogers, Woodes, A Cruising Voyage Round the World, The Narrative Press, California, 2004

Rundell, Maria Eliza Ketelby, A New System of Domestic Cookery, 5th ed., London, 1734

Russel, William Clark, William Dampier, Macmillan and Company, London and New York, 1889

Ryder, Hugh, New Practical Observations in Surgery Containing Divers Remarkable Cases and Cures, Printed for James Partridge, London, 1685

Scarisbrick, Diana, Rings: Jewelry of Power, Love and Loyalty, Thames & Hudson, University of Michigan, 2007

Schonhorn, Manuel, A General History of the Pyrates, Dover Maritime, New York, 1999

Sharp, Bartholomew, Captain Sharp's Journal of His Expedition, from William Hacke's A collection of original voyages (1699), Scholar's Facimiles and Reprints, Delmar, New York, 1993

Sheridan, Richard B., The Doctor and the Buccaneer: Sir Hans Sloane's Case History of Sir Henry Morgan, Jamaica, 1688, The Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, Volume 41, p 76-87

Shirley, John (J.S.), A Short Compendium of Chirurgery, 2nd ed., Printed for A.G and J.P., London, 1683

Smith, Aaron, The Atrocities of the Pirates, The Lions Press, New York, 1999, original copyright 1824.

Smith, John, Seamans Grammar and Dictionary, Explaining all the difficult Terms in Navigation and the Practical Navigator and Gunner, London, 1691

Smith, Robert, Court Cookery: Or, The Compleat English Cook, Printed for T. Wotton, at the Three-Daggers in Fleet-Street, London, 1725

Old Book Bindings
Photographer: Tom Murphy VII

Smollett, Tobias, The Adventures of Roderick Random, The Blackfriars Publishing Company, London, England, 1748

Snelgrave, Captain William, A New Account of Some Parts of Guinea and the Slave Trade , Frank Cass & Company, Ltd, 1971, reprinted from 1734 first edition

"On Hats", Society of Antiquaries of London, Archaeologia: or Miscellaneous Tracts Relating to Antiquity, Vol. 24, p. 169

Spink, M.S. and Lewis, G.L., Albucasis On Surgery and Instruments; A Definitive Edition of the Arabic Text with English Translation and Commentary, University of California Press, Berkley and Los Angeles, 1973

Stalkartt, Marmaduke, Naval Architecture, or the Rudiments and Rules of Ship Building, London, 1781

Strong, L.A.G., Dr. Quicksilver, 1660-1742; The Life and Times of Thomas Dover, M.D., Andrew Melrose, Stratford Place London, 1955

SWAHN, J.-Ö., The Cultural History of Crayfish, Bulletin Francais De La Peche Et De La Pisciculture, 372-373, 2004, p. 243-51

Sydenham, Thomas, The Whole Works of that Excellent Practical Physician Dr. Thomas Sydenham, 10th ed. London, Printed for W. Feales, of Rowe's Head the Corner of Essex-street in the Strand, 1734

Teonge, Henry, The Diary of Henry Teonge, Chaplain on Board H.M.'s Ships Assistance, Bristol, and Royal Oak, 1675-1679, London, 1825

Shipping on the Bosphurus
Photographer: Franz Hunten
Shipping on the Bosphorus (1869)

Thompson, Dr. Charles John Samuel, The History and Evolution of Surgical Instruments, Martino Publishing, Mansfield Centre, CT, 2006, reprinted from the 1942 original

Thornbury, Walter, The Monarchs of the Main, Routledge, Warne & Routledge, London, 1861

Thrower, William Rayner, Life at Sea in the Age of Sail, Phillimore, London and Chichester, 1972

Thrower, William Rayner, The Pirate Picture, Phillimore, London and Chichester, 1980

Tryon, Thomas, The Way to Health, Long Life and Happiness, 3rd. ed., London, 1697

Ure, Andrew, A Dictionary of Art, Manufactures, and Mines, D. Appleton and Company, New York, 1808

Uring, Nathaniel, A history of the voyages and travels of Capt. Nathaniel Uring [electronic resource], with a new draught of the Bay of Honduras, London, Cassell and company ltd., 1928

Van Swieten, Baron Gerard, The Diseases Incident To Armies, With The Method Of Cure, 1776 Translation of 1758 Original, London, 1776

de Villiers, JC, "The Dutch East India Company, scurvy and the victualling station at the Cape," SAMJ, February 2006, p. 105-110

Vogel, Karl, "Medicine at Sea in the Days of Sail," Milestones in Medicine, Edited by James Alexander Miller, New York, 1938

Wafer's Book

Wafer, Lionel, A New Voyage and Description of the Isthmus of America, Reprinted from the original edition of 1699, Edited by George Parker Winship, The Burroughs Brothers Company, Cleveland, 1903

Wakely, Sir Cecil, Surgeons and the Navy, transcript of Thomas Vicary Lecture delivered at the Royal College of Surgeons in England, 11/14/1957

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